Martin Luther King, Jr., original name Michael King, Jr., (born January 15, 1929, Atlanta, Georgia, U.S.—died April 4, 1968, Memphis, Tennessee), Baptist minister and social activist who led the civil rights movement in the United States from the mid-1950s until his death by assassination in 1968. With knowledge, spirit, good humor, and passion, THE AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR. brings to life a remarkable man whose thoughts and actions speak to our most burning contemporary issues and still inspire the desires, hopes, and dreams of us all. In 1983, President Ronald Reagan signed into law a bill creating Martin Luther King Jr. Day, a federal holiday honoring the legacy of the slain civil rights leader. These nonfiction books include biographies about Martin Luther King Jr., an autobiography from his widow, and reflections on Dr. King’s essays. But Rustin was also a controversial figure at the time, being a homosexual with alleged ties to the Communist Party. Not wanting to alienate southern judges by violating the restraining order, a different approach was taken. He hoped that America and the world could become a colorblind society where race would not impact a person's civil rights. In 1954, while still working on his dissertation, King became pastor of the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church of Montgomery, Alabama. Quick Facts Famous as Worked for civil rights of black people Nationality American Religion Baptist (Progressive National Baptist Convention) Political ideology When he went to one of the boys' house, their mother met him at the front door and told him in a rude tone tha… He returned to Atlanta to become co-pastor with his father at Ebenezer Baptist Church but also continued his civil rights efforts. The shooter, a malcontent drifter and former convict named James Earl Ray, was eventually apprehended after a two-month, international manhunt. King was a great man who accomplished great things, Reviewed in the United Kingdom on March 23, 2018. But he was also new to the community and had few enemies, so it was felt he would have strong credibility with the Black community. He died in prison on April 23, 1998. Apparently this writer was commissioned by MLK's family to write an account of his life, based on his writings and their remembrances. His life and work have been honored with a national holiday, schools and public buildings named after him, and a memorial on Independence Mall in Washington, D.C. There were a few sections that were duplicative, but overall I thought it was an excellent, absorbing read. Both King's and Nixon's homes were attacked. He felt that America's involvement in Vietnam was politically untenable and the government's conduct in the war discriminatory to the poor. Seventeen demonstrators were hospitalized in a day that would be called "Bloody Sunday.". There was a problem loading your book clubs. Though they undoubtedly tried, King’s parents couldn’t shield him completely from racism. The students would sit at racially segregated lunch counters in the city's stores. These were some very determined people who walked everywhere they needed to go for over a year! King was elected to lead the boycott because he was young, well-trained with solid family connections and had professional standing. Alabama governor George Wallace continued to try to prevent another march until President Lyndon B. Johnson pledged his support and ordered U.S. Army troops and the Alabama National Guard to protect the protestors. When a mostly white jury acquitted the police officers who were caught on video beating Rodney King, it set off the L.A. riots of 1992. (3) In their 2018 article on MLK for MLK day, the Washington Post got it wrong. A second march was canceled due to a restraining order to prevent the march from taking place. To address this criticism, King began making a link between discrimination and poverty, and he began to speak out against the Vietnam War. Check out the biography to know about his childhood, life and timeline. Please try again. Along the way of life, someone must have sense enough and morality enough to cut off the chain of hate and evil. Mays was an outspoken advocate for racial equality and encouraged King to view Christianity as a potential force for social change. It was unfortunate that Martin Luther King Jr. did not get a chance to write his own autobiography, but Clayborne Carson does a wonderful job piecing together Martin's life struggles, highlights and main ideas. Martin Sr. fought against racial prejudice, not just because his race suffered, but because he considered racism and segregation to be an affront to God's will. Martin Luther King Jr. Biographical M artin Luther King, Jr., (January 15, 1929-April 4, 1968) was born Michael Luther King, Jr., but later had his name changed to Martin. He had grown tired of marches, going to jail, and living under the constant threat of death. After viewing product detail pages, look here to find an easy way to navigate back to pages you are interested in. — Martin Luther King, Jr. / "I Have A Dream" speech, August 28, 1963. Passed it onto my teenage son who is equally fascinated. After being accepted at several colleges for his doctoral study, King enrolled at Boston University. Audio, Cassette, Abridged, Audiobook, Unabridged, Historical India & South Asia Biographies, Warner Books; Illustrated edition (January 1, 2001), Reviewed in the United States on March 12, 2015. Took Inspiration From Gandhi Nonviolence. Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. King was not in the march, however, the attack was televised showing horrifying images of marchers being bloodied and severely injured. Nixon, head of the local NAACP chapter met with King and other local civil rights leaders to plan a Montgomery Bus Boycott. Behind the Dream: The Making of the Speech that Transformed a Nation by Clarence B. Jones and Stuart Connelly. Reviewed in the United Kingdom on October 29, 2018. Reviewed in the United States on September 3, 2018. His strong belief in nonviolent protest helped set the tone of the movement. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. (January 15,1929 - April 4, 1968) Dr. King was born Michael Luther King, Jr., but later had his name changed to Martin. Martin Sr. was more the disciplinarian, while his wife's gentleness easily balanced out the father's strict hand. The news of his imprisonment entered the 1960 presidential campaign when candidate John F. Kennedy made a phone call to Coretta Scott King. During his last year in seminary, King came under the guidance of Morehouse College President Benjamin E. Mays who influenced King’s spiritual development. Boycotts, protests, and marches were eventually effective, and much legislation was passed against racial discrimination. Actor, singer Dean Martin starred in several films with Jerry Lewis and belonged to the "Rat Pack," which included Frank Sinatra and Sammy Davis, Jr. Ralph D. Abernathy was a Baptist minister who co-founded the Southern Christian Leadership Conference and was a close adviser to Martin Luther King Jr. Martin Luther King Jr. was a scholar and minister who led the civil rights movement. King encouraged students to continue to use nonviolent methods during their protests. Reviewed in the United States on March 20, 2016. As a black man who has directly benefited from the Civil Rights Movement I feel a personal responsibility to advance the work of Dr. King. I heard King's voice speaking every word of every chapter. On April 3, he gave his final and what proved to be an eerily prophetic speech, “I’ve Been to the Mountaintop,” in which he told supporters at the Mason Temple in Memphis, "I've seen the promised land. He married Jennie Celeste Parks and they had one child that survived, Alberta. The Rev. When they refused to leave the counter area, King and 36 others were arrested. The greatest way to do that is through love. King was soon released. On the night that Parks was arrested, E.D. In the fall of his senior year, he told his father of his decision. She sat in the first row of the "colored" section in the middle of the bus. Martin Luther King Jr., who was born in Atlanta at the beginning of the Great Depression, came across segregation and prejudice firsthand. He too became a successful minister and adopted the name Martin Luther King Sr. in honor of the German Protestant religious leader Martin Luther. The best book I have read in a very long time. I learned so much that I didn't know I didn't know. Reverend Bernice A. © 2021 Biography and the Biography logo are registered trademarks of A&E Television Networks, LLC. Martin's honesty and quest for justice rings throughout. The Autobiography of Martin Luther King, Jr: Chapter 14: The Sit-In Movement. I may not get there with you. In April 1960, the SCLC held a conference at Shaw University in Raleigh, North Carolina with local sit-in leaders. This book is excellent. The trip affected him in a profound way, increasing his commitment to America's civil rights struggle. Top subscription boxes – right to your door, © 1996-2020, Amazon.com, Inc. or its affiliates. The newlyweds moved to A.D.'s home in Atlanta. I became fascinated by Martin Luther King after visiting his memorial in Washington DC and standing on the spot where he did his famous speech to the nation. They said that King was finally swaying to Malcom X's advocacy of violence to try to combat segregation and discrimination during the later part of King's life and that is just completely wrong according to the source materials set forth in this book. I really recommend this, Reviewed in the United Kingdom on April 22, 2019. Though his counsel was invaluable to King, many of his other supporters urged him to distance himself from Rustin. Very good book. Both his father and grandfather were pastors in an African-American Baptist church. King won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964, among several other honors. Through his activism and inspirational speeches, he played a pivotal role in ending the legal segregation of African American citizens in the United States, as well as the creation of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. If you see something that doesn't look right, contact us! From late 1965 through 1967, King expanded his civil rights efforts into other larger American cities, including Chicago and Los Angeles. He thrived in all his studies, and was valedictorian of his class in 1951, and elected student body president. It was unfortunate that Martin Luther King Jr. did not get a chance to write his own autobiography, but Clayborne Carson does a wonderful job piecing together Martin's life struggles, highlights and main ideas. From a general summary to chapter summaries to explanations of famous quotes, the SparkNotes Martin Luther King, Jr. Study Guide has everything you need to ace quizzes, tests, and essays. The famed civil rights leader was also a preacher, philosopher, and orator. I bought this book for a number of reasons. The Autobiography of Martin Luther King, Jr. Two of his friends did not show up to play ball with him and Martin decided to go looking for them. "An Autobiography of Religious Development" | The Martin Luther King, Jr., Research and Education Institute We have sometimes given our white brothers the feeling that we liked the way we were being treated. King attended Booker T. Washington High School, where he was said to be a precocious student. Discussions on the concepts of power and love and nonviolence and violence were exceptional. King was jailed along with large numbers of his supporters, but the event drew nationwide attention. He married Alberta in 1926 after an eight-year courtship. Other than that, I could have made better use of my time. Please try again. Relevant and insightful, THE AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR. offers King's seldom disclosed views on some of the world's greatest and most controversial figures: John F. Kennedy, Malcolm X, Lyndon B. Johnson, Mahatma Gandhi, and Richard Nixon. By 1968, the years of demonstrations and confrontations were beginning to wear on King. This resulted in the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, authorizing the federal government to enforce desegregation of public accommodations and outlawing discrimination in publicly owned facilities. During his time at University Martin Luther King became aware of the vast inequality and injustice faced by black Am… It was like he was sitting next to you telling you the story of his life. To get the free app, enter your mobile phone number. In the spring of 1968, a labor strike by Memphis sanitation workers drew King to one last crusade. M. Luther King attended Morehouse College in Atlanta, (segregated schooling) and then went to study at Crozer Theological Seminary in Pennsylvania and Boston University. There was an error retrieving your Wish Lists. That evening, 42-year-old Rosa Parks boarded the Cleveland Avenue bus to go home after an exhausting day at work. A third march was planned and this time King made sure he was part of it. His grandfather began the family's long tenure as pastors of the Ebenezer Baptist Church in Atlanta, serving from 1914 to 1931; his father has served from then until the present, and from 1960 until his death Martin Luther acted as co-pastor. Flush with victory, African American civil rights leaders … Martin Sr. stepped in as pastor of Ebenezer Baptist Church upon the death of his father-in-law in 1931. This book is a fitting testimony. This "autobiography" left me hungry for the real story. Teenager Claudette Colvin was then arrested and taken to jail. It was here that King made his famous "I Have a Dream" speech, emphasizing his belief that someday all men could be brothers, "I have a dream that my four children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character." Please try again. King was only 25 years old. But then it was revealed that Colvin was pregnant and civil rights leaders feared this would scandalize the deeply religious Black community and make Colvin (and, thus the group's efforts) less credible in the eyes of sympathetic white people. They were married in June 1953 and had four children, Yolanda, Martin Luther King III, Dexter Scott and Bernice. Prime members enjoy FREE Delivery and exclusive access to music, movies, TV shows, original audio series, and Kindle books. In due time, Michael Jr. would follow his father's lead and adopt the name himself. He skipped both the ninth and eleventh grades, and entered Morehouse College in Atlanta at age 15, in 1944. Instead of forcing a confrontation, King led his followers to kneel in prayer and they then turned back. Among his many efforts, King headed the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). He led non-violent protests to fight for the rights of all people including African Americans. All I can say after reading this book is WOW - what an amazing story. Please try your request again later. Parks was arrested and booked for violating the Montgomery City Code. But soon after, King was imprisoned for violating his probation on a traffic conviction. FACT CARD. He completed his Ph.D. and earned his degree in 1955. However, King was personally criticized by Black and white clergy alike for taking risks and endangering the children who attended the demonstration. Years after his death, he is the most widely known African American leader of his era. By August of 1960, the sit-ins had been successful in ending segregation at lunch counters in 27 southern cities. But we come here tonight to be saved from that patience that makes us patient with anything less than freedom and justice.". To me, the book really delivered toward the end. He strongly discouraged any sense of class superiority in his children which left a lasting impression on Martin Jr. Eye-opening, and insightful. The King and Williams families had roots in rural Georgia. On March 21, approximately 2,000 people began a march from Selma to Montgomery, the state capitol. Plans were in the works for another march on Washington to revive his movement and bring attention to a widening range of issues. There's a problem loading this menu right now. After being defeated in several lower court rulings and suffering large financial losses, the city of Montgomery lifted the law mandating segregated public transportation. The author imagines conversations that Dr. King might have, and supports that with snippets of his writing. Bring your club to Amazon Book Clubs, start a new book club and invite your friends to join, or find a club that’s right for you for free. In February 1960, a group of African American students in North Carolina began what became known as the Greensboro sit-in movement. King had an older sister, Willie Christine, and a younger brother, Alfred Daniel Williams King. Firstly, I knew precious little about the man who stands as a giant of history. Something went wrong. In 1959, with the help of the American Friends Service Committee, and inspired by Mahatma Gandhi's success with non-violent activism, King visited Gandhi's birthplace in India. In 1948, King earned a sociology degree from Morehouse College and attended the liberal Crozer Theological Seminary in Chester, Pennsylvania. The assassination sparked riots and demonstrations in more than 100 cities across the country. The event was traumatic for King, more so because he was out watching a parade against his parents' wishes when she died. For me, the important parts include: (1) The Montgomery bus strike lasted over a year. In the big storm of Brexit it is a must to read about the struggles of the civil right movements in the US. Unable to add item to List. Rustin served as King's mentor and advisor throughout his early activism and was the main organizer of the 1963 March on Washington. Abolitionist Martin Robison Delany was both a physician and newspaper editor and became one of the most influential and successful anti-slavery activists of the 19th century. But in his junior year, King took a Bible class, renewed his faith and began to envision a career in the ministry. He became involved with a white woman and went through a difficult time before he could break off the affair. The King children grew up in a secure and loving environment. Martin's revelations are timeless. DOWNLOAD BIOGRAPHY'S MARTIN LUTHER KING JR. Quotes Showing 1-30 of 138 “A man who won't die for something is not fit to live.” ― Martin Luther King Jr., The Autobiography of Martin Luther King, Jr. Andrew Young Jr. was an activist for the civil rights movement alongside Martin Luther King Jr. On October 19, 1960, King and 75 students entered a local department store and requested lunch-counter service but were denied. The Autobiography of Martin Luther King, Jr. The life of Martin Luther King Jr. Any number of historic moments in the civil-rights struggle have been used to identify Martin Luther King, Jr. — prime mover of the Montgomery bus boycott, keynote speaker at the March on Washington, youngest Nobel Peace Prize laureate. READ MORE: The Assassination of Martin Luther King Jr. King's life had a seismic impact on race relations in the United States. Martin Luther King, Jr. was one of the twentieth century's most influential men and lived one of its most extraordinary lives. On March 9, 1965, a procession of 2,500 marchers, both Black and white, set out once again to cross the Pettus Bridge and confronted barricades and state troopers. He continues to be remembered as one of the most influential and inspirational African American leaders in history. Assembled from his writings, letters, interviews, and speeches, this autobiography tells of King’s journey from Christian minister in the segregated South to leading figure of the civil rights movement. King recalls a nurturing family life—closely interwoven with activities in his father’s church—which conditioned him to be optimistic about human nature. In January 1957, King, Ralph Abernathy and 60 ministers and civil rights activists founded the Southern Christian Leadership Conference to harness the moral authority and organizing power of Black churches. In his famous Letter from Birmingham Jail, King eloquently spelled out his theory of non-violence: "Nonviolent direct action seeks to create such a crisis and foster such a tension that a community, which has constantly refused to negotiate, is forced to confront the issue.". Distraught at the news, young King jumped from a second-story window at the family home, allegedly attempting suicide. The Autobiography of Martin Luther King, Jr.; Chapter 1: Early Years Autobiography of Martin Luther King, Jr. Civil rights leader Whitney Young Jr., head of the National Urban League, was at the forefront of racial integration and African American economic empowerment. Three other African American passengers reluctantly gave up their places, but Parks remained seated. Reviewed in the United Kingdom on April 21, 2020, Thoroughly enjoyed the read. free summary of the autobiography of Martin Luther King Martin Luther King, Jr. (born Michael King, Jr.; January 15, 1929 – April 4, 1968) was an American pastor, activist, humanitarian, and leader in the African-American Civil Rights Movement. What an amazing story. He was a popular student, especially with his female classmates, but an unmotivated student who floated through his first two years. Although his family was deeply involved in the church and worship, King questioned religion in general and felt uncomfortable with overly emotional displays of religious worship. He also earned a fellowship for graduate study. In the 1970s, FBI files, released under the Freedom of Information Act, revealed that he was under government surveillance, and suggested his involvement in adulterous relationships and communist influences. Martin Luther King Jr Biography Martin Luther King Jr. was a prominent leader of civil rights movement in US. She is chief executive officer of the Martin Luther King Jr. Center for Nonviolent Social Change in Atlanta, Georgia. But the African American community also took legal action against the city ordinance arguing that it was unconstitutional based on the Supreme Court's "separate is never equal" decision in Brown v. Board of Education. For many years we have shown an amazing patience. https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/martin-luther-king-jr-biography On August 28, 1963, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. spoke the words: “I have a dream.” In his first speech as the group's president, King declared, "We have no alternative but to protest. The driver asked her again to give up her seat and again she refused. African American civil rights activist Bayard Rustin, who had studied Gandhi's teachings, became one of King's associates and counseled him to dedicate himself to the principles of nonviolence. Realizing the incident would hurt the city's reputation, Atlanta's mayor negotiated a truce and charges were eventually dropped. Then you can start reading Kindle books on your smartphone, tablet, or computer - no Kindle device required. King's participation in the organization gave him a base of operation throughout the South, as well as a national platform. Many people in cities not experiencing racial tension began to question the nation's Jim Crow laws and the near-century of second-class treatment of African American citizens. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. (Jan. 15, 1929–April 4, 1968) was the charismatic leader of the U.S. civil rights movement in the 1950s and 1960s. 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